## Friday, June 28, 2013

### OR Gate

Good evening everyone. Welcome to my blog.

So to continue my writing on logic gates I will write about OR gate this time.

What is it?

OR gate, one of the Basic logic gates is such a gate that implements logical disjunction. It behaves in a way that if only one of the Inputs is High then the Output will be High as well. In an OR gate the Output will be low only when all the Inputs are low.

Truth table:

Visual Representation:

To realize OR gate visually let's assume two persons Mr. Blue and Mr. Red divided by a river and there are two bridges across this river. Now what common sense tells us is if only one bridge is there, no matter which one is, they can meet each other. The only time they won't be able to meet is when both the bridges are unavailable. That's exactly what OR gate is. If it is for three or maybe more inputs, imagine more parallel bridges.

Symbol:

So as we have seen the Truth table and Visual Representation, let's see how it can be implemented using Diodes or Transistors.

OR Gate Using Diodes:

This Circuit is as simple as it can get. If we consider any instant when there is no input voltage for any of the inputs, A and B the resistor R will pull down the Output but if any voltage is available on either A or B or both that voltage will come across the resistor which will cause the output to be pulled up. So no Input we get a Zero on the output but for any other input we get that on the output. Adding another diode similarly will give us Three inputs.

OR Gate using Transistors:

Again let's consider a very simple circuit with two NPN transistors. If we look at the output we will see that if there is no supply to the Base of any transistor they will act pretty much like open circuit. In that scenario the 2.2K resistor will pull the output down to zero. But if you close any of the switches that are with A or B or both that will cause the transistor or transistors to conduct which will pull up the output. Again if you want another input just add another transistor similarly.

Note: If you keep the transistor base floating you might not get proper result so it will be a good idea to hook up a 10K resistor with the base of the transistor just to make sure that this circuit will work reliably.

Available OR Gates:

Or gates are available in both TTL and CMOS.

CMOS 4075: Triple 3-Input OR.
CMOS 4072: Dual 4-Input OR.
CMOS 74HC32: Quad 2-Input OR, high speed CMOS.
CMOS 74LVC32: Quad 2-Input OR, low voltage.
TTL 7432 : Quad 2-Input OR, the ancestral one.
TTL 74LS32: Quad 2-Input OR, low power Schottky.

 Pin Configuration of a 7432 Integrated Circuit

Visit my other posts.

### Overclocking Sandy & Ivy Bridge In A Nutshell

Good Evening everyone. Welcome to my blog again. I usually try to write on topics from recent technologies , computer stuffs, and electronics circuits and many things. Though thanks to my laziness, haven't written that much! Still I am trying!

Anyway now I am going to write on how to overclock your Sandy bridge & Ivy bridge processors. You will be able to easily overclock your processor after reading this post. But its in brief. If you need to know more about this you can ask me or search on the internet.

WARNING:

OVERCLOCKING WILL VOID WARRANTY & MAY PERMANENTLY DAMAGE YOUR PROCESSOR & MOTHERBOARD.
DON'T TRY OVERCLOCKING ON INTEL STOCK COOLER.

So What is OVERCLOCKING?

Overclocking (OCing) is simply the process of making any computer( this days you can even overclock your smartphone) or it's component run faster than the  specified speed that is told by the manufacturer. For example if you have a processor say a core i5 2500K which has 3.3GHz speed marked. Manufacturer has made this product to run at this speed. But if you supply a bit more voltage(core voltage) or push the multiplier of the CPU it will run faster than 3.3GHz, assume 4.2GHz, so what you have done is OVERCLOCKING. Remember overclocking will produce much heat & consume more power, so make sure you have a good power supply unit & a good cooler.

Why? Why overclocking?
Remember the old movie Back To The Future? Mr. Doc put something in the burner of the train to provide more thermal power to the boiler & eventually achieve higher speed! So, gain from overclocking is Higher Performance! But you may have to sacrifice Lifespan of the component, It will cause higher power consumption & generate more heat.

Is it really necessary?
Technology is running in rocket speed this days! It feels like the first generation Core i7 has just arrived yesterday & now all I can see is the fourth generation Core processors are ready! And so does the softwares & games! Think about Crysis Warhead! Played that when I had just finished my school! & Now its time for Crysis 3 with a recommendation of using a very high end system. What if you can't buy a very high end system? Then you can overclock your relatively cheaper system to get more performance. Though people this days overclock without any reason, but for some people it may be needed.

Intel core processors are now on top of the performance chart. They are a bit pricey but ofcourse with good performance. AMD processor are also good. And AMD has sometimes better price vs performance ratio but Intel Core processors are not bad either. Will talk about AMD later, about Intel Core i3 is a real good choice for low budget system, It has two physical cores(so it burns lower electric power) & supports Hyper Threading. Hyper Threading gives this processor a nice boost of performance. But is not a good choice for heavy workload like 3D rendering. Core i5 is kind of all rounder here, good price, has four physical cores & has very nice performance from day-to-day browsing, programming, entertainment, gaming even 3D modeling! The Core i7 is targeted for High end systems. It also has four physical cores(I'm not talking about i7X that has 6 physical cores) but it has Hyper Threading that makes it work like a 8 core processor & give it a nice boost of performance that allows this processor to stay on top of the performance Rank list.

This post is about the core processors of 2nd & 3rd generation. Why 2nd & 3rd generation? Because they are almost identical. Main difference between this two generation is the Lithography 2nd generation core processors use a 32nm lithography where 3rd generation used a 22nm lithography. Using a lower nm results in lower power consumption & higher per watt performance. Processors of this two generations have almost same type of operation. They use a base clock of 100.30MHz & a CPU multiplier. So if the multiplier is set to 31 you will get 31*100.30MHz that is 3109.3MHz or 3.1GHz. That's what is written by the processor manufacturer. One more thing is the temperature. As Overclocking produces more heat you have to dissipate that heat from the CPU. So you will be needing a better cooler. Check the maximum package temperature for this CPU here. What you have to make sure is not to cross this temperature. Important thing here is Core Temperature is different from package temperature. Temperature written here is the Tcase or Temperature of the packaging. If you use Real Temp or software like that, they will show you the core temperature which can be higher than the Package temperature.

This is the Screenshot of CPU-Z ( You can get it from here or search on the web) from my desktop. As you can see when the CPU is in idle state, in order to consume less energy it clocks itself down to 1.6GHz(first image) & when you put load on it(I used Prime95 to give 100% load on the CPU) it reaches the top level of its marked speed. Here you can see its 3.5GHz. And notice each time the base clock stays at the same only the multiplier has changes. You can change the base clock too. That will also Overclock the CPU but the whole system depends on the base clock. Like the RAM on your system depends on the base clock same as the CPU if you change the base clock value that will ultimately change the RAM speed & which may lead to instability. So, for ease of operation I'm not going to touch the base clock. Now Let's see how to overclock. You have to enter into the BIOS( Basic Input/Output System) of your system. When the system boots up you can hit the proper button (Del for most Asus & Gigabyte boards) to enter there. You can overclock from here. You may also notice the change of core voltage with the frequency. The higher the voltage is the higher the frequency will be.

Tip : Don't try overclocking software as most of them are not stable.

Test Setup

Processor : Intel Core i7 2600
Cooler : Cooler Master Hyper 412 Slim
Motherboard : Gigabyte GA Z68A-D3H-B3 Rev1.0 BIOS F4
RAM : Transcend 4GB 1333MHz 9-9-9-24 * 4
Hard Drive : Hitachi  1TB SATAII
Western Digital  2TB SATAIII
Power Supply : Corsair CX750
GPU: MSI GTX 660OC 2GB

HOW TO :

Now after entering the BIOS you may see different thing. I am using the traditional BIOS though Gigabyte has released graphical BIOS for this board but I'm still using the older one. I'm kinda terminal guy! anyway if you are using any other board don't worry you will find the same options their too!

This is how the BIOS looks like.

You can use the keyboard's navigation buttons & enter button to enter into any options. For overclocking we will be needing the first option only. That is the M.I.T. You can also get more information & modifiable setup from other options. A small information is shown in the lower portion of the display that "Change CPU's Clock & Voltage" , that's what you can do from M.I.T. Selecting a different option will show a different information.

After entering the M.I.T you will find this.

Here you can see more options on Modifying frequency & voltage. And most of them are "Advanced Option" so be careful! & Information about the system is shown here too. The BIOS version, The BCLK(the base clock that I was talking about) The CPU frequency, Memory Frequency & Installed Total memory size(RAM) & CPU temperature. As I have already said you have to keep an eye on the temperature. Higher temperature can damage the CPU. Next two options are Core voltage, cores are running on this voltage & DRAM voltage is the voltage RAM is running on.

To check the status of the system you can check the M.I.T. Current status.

Here You can see the Processor Model, Its frequency, DRAM's frequency & Slot information. I am using the first two slots & each one is populated with a 4GB 1333MHz RAM. (Why not higher frequency? Higher frequency RAM on Intel Processor is kind of wastage.Because this processor won't be benefited much from higher frequency RAM. Though 1600MHz would be nice.)

Now the Next thing is Advanced Frequency Settings.

You will be overclocking from here. The first option is the Clock Ratio. It is currently set to 34X. You can change it to over/under clock the CPU. To get the frequency you have to multiply the clock ratio with the BCLK. if you use 42X then you will be getting 42*100MHz that is 4200MHz/4.2GHz.

You will see this after clicking the CPU Clock Ratio. Here the maximum value is 42 because I'm using a non-K version processor here. You can use a K processor such as a i7 2600K to get unlocked Multiplier. That will allow you to overclock even more. Overclocking CPU will give more pressure on the motherboard's power phase(it supplies power to the processor iGPU RAM). You will need a good motherboard for stable overclocking.

You can also look for Advanced CPU core feature , You can enable BCLK control that will allow you to change the BCLK. But as I have said earlier that may cause stability problem & you can only OC to smaller margin with BCLK. You can change the Memory Multiplier. That's also same as the CPU. Currently it is at 13.33 that will result in 13.33*100MHz=1333MHz. You can just left it to Auto. If you find that it is not working at the rated manufacturer speed you can change it. The Next thing is the iGPU clock. You can Overclock your integrated GPU too. Core series comes with integrated Graphics chip that is located inside of the processor. You can overclock that too. But you will be needing supported motherboard for doing that.

You can also change the Ratio from here. Both will result in the same. If you want to overclock really high you have to enable the CPU PLL over voltage. For 4.2GHz or something you can keep it at disabled.

If you overclock better to disable the Turbo Boost! (What turbo boost do is, when system is loading on a single core turbo boost automatically disable one or more core to achieve higher core frequency of the running core. Same as the AMD's Turbo core. If you overclock you won't be needing this.) Turbo Ratio wont be needed If you OC so just leave them. You can enable or disable cores or Hyper Threading. If You are planning on a quick overclocking just leave them as they are. You can set a bit higher value for core current limit though. Like 100Amps.

This is how it will look like after selecting higher Ratio. As you can see it is showing that it will reach 4.2GHz.

This is the system Memory Multiplier. Talked about it earlier. Leave it to auto. It's fine.

You can also overclock the iGPU. Not a good idea because it doesn't result in any major difference.

This is the advanced memory settings. You can change the memory multiplier from here too.

Just leave them as they are.

This is the Motherboard voltage Control. From here you can control any voltage. But be careful when changing voltages. You can adjust voltage drop using the option LLC(Load Line Calibration). LLC prevents the voltage from dropping but for very short amount of time it may push the voltage over the limit. So better to follow Intel Spec. I will write about LLC later. Higher level of overclocking may require LLC though.

Okay Now after overclocking (40X multiplier) I have turned on the system again. Look at the frequency now.

Also notice that the temperature has gone 4 degree higher than earlier & core voltage has also gone higher. Remember Maximum Core voltage for 24/7 usage of Sandy Bridge is 1.375V & Ivy bridge is 1.28V. Don't push too much. You are overclocking for your own use. Not for a world record.

You can also see more settings from Misc Settings. Like enabling Virtualization(If your CPU is supported).

That's how it is. You can easily overclock by doing this. I have tested system stability with Intel Burn Test & Prime95. It was good. No problem at all. You can also do it if you want.

Tips:

If you plan on overclocking get a K series processor. Like i5 2500K/i7 2600K/ i5 3570K/ i7 3770k.

Use a better processor cooler with it. Overclocked processor will produce a lot of heat, you have to dissipate it in order to stay stable. You can use Real Temp to see the core temperature.

You will need chip set (or motherboard whatever you say) to overclock. Not all boards come with overclocking feature & good power phase. So if you want to overclock 2nd or 3rd generation processor buy Z68/Z77 board.

Last but not the least make sure you know what exactly you are doing.

What will you get?

You will get better performance from the same machine. If you render models with 3DS max, you can render faster with an overclocked processor.

That's all. Good luck everyone. And don't forget to check back for more.

## Wednesday, June 26, 2013

### Sealed Lead Acid Battery And How to Charge It Using LM317

Good evening and welcome back to my blog! In an earlier post I've written about the integrated circuit LM317 and how you can make a variable voltage regulator .Now I'm going to write about how this integrated circuit can be used to charge Sealed Lead Acid Battery or which is often called by SLA battery and also put some information about these type of battery.

What is a SLA battery?

 A generic SLA Battery

In the picture above what you are seeing is a sealed lead acid battery. Lead acid battery is the probably the most common and well known type of rechargeable battery and it is here for like 150 years, maybe a little less but I'm pretty sure they will survive way more than 150 years. These type of cells are used in computer UPS, Small DC Fan, powering traction motor of small vehicle and many other applications. The main reason for this is they are cheap and works reliably. It also can give you a good amount of power for example the picture that you see here is rated at 12V 8.2Ah. Which means if you draw 8.2A current from this battery at 12V will provide power for an hour. In other words you can draw about 98.4W for an hour. That's pretty good amount of power.

Sealed Lead Acid Battery does not need maintenance that is why they are often called maintenance free lead acid battery. The standard lead acid battery, I mean the flooded one needs water every couple months as water evaporates. But in sealed lead acid you just charge properly and regularly and that's it. Don't overload, short circuit it will run for about 2 years, I mean they do offer like 200-300 cycles but for normal usage they can easily last 2 years. I will put some very useful links at the end of the post, make sure to check that to learn more.

Now lets look at the circuit diagram.

From My previous post or from the internet you may know that the output voltage is defined by the following relation.

Here, R1 is 120ohm & 220ohm, R2 is 470ohm+1KohmVR or 5Kohm VR. (VR=Variable Resistor)

For lead acid battery you have to charge it with 1/10th of its Ah rating. That means a 8.2Ah battery needs to be charged at about 0.82A and of-course with proper voltage which is 13.8V in this circuit.

Now how does the circuit work?

The LM317 will provide proper voltage for charging as it is very important.In the first diagram the charging current for the battery is controlled by Q1 ,R1,R4& R5. Variable resistor  VR1 can be used to set the charging current.As the battery gets charged the the current through R1 increases .This changes the conduction of Q1.Since collector of Q1 is connected to adjust pin of IC LM 317 the voltage at the output of of LM 317 increases.When battery is fully charged charger circuit reduces the charging current and this mode is called trickle charging mode.

In the second diagram same thing is happening too. The diode IN4007 is a bleeder  diode.

Important notes here is , diodes drops about 0.7V each so make sure to use proper transformer for this circuit. This regulator may also drop about 3V. So, its good to provide 18V-20V as input.

LM317 needs a moderately sized heat-sink. Apply small amount of thermal paste & fit it with a heat-sink. If you need more power, use a LM338.

Calibration :

Connect the circuit, start the power & connect a voltmeter to its output lead before connecting a battery. Then use the variable Resistor to find out proper 13.8V. Then attach the battery. About the Resistor R use value defined by 0.6/Max Current. So, if you need 1A max current you will be needing a 0.6ohm 5W Resistor for that.

Hope You have enjoyed the writing & good luck with your works.

Resources:

3. Voltage regulator using LM317.
4. Link to my other posts.

### Touch Switch Using 555 IC - Hobby Electronics

It's about 0455 hour here! I'm still wide awake & trying to write down something. So now a small circuit for touch switch! We all know touch switch has become very popular this days. Actually "TOUCHING" is very popular now-a-days. Seems like its 21st century's standard issue! From smartphone to desktop laptop washing machine even bath tubs have touch switches now!

So, let's dive in!

First the circuit diagram.

How will it work?

If you take a look at the datasheet of the 555 Timer IC you will be able to see #2 pin is the trigger of the IC. In this circuit it is triggered by the induced voltage of human body, the output will go high for a time determined by the 5Mohm variable Resistor & 100uF capacitor. Although it will get low after a few moments and the IC will stop providing output meaning the load will be turned off as well. A small implementation can be made to stop this from happening. The load can be anything, it can be small audio circuit, some LED lamps or a relay to drive more stuff! You can also do a lot of experiment with this circuit!

Where to use?

You can make a few for your own room maybe to turn on the light or something or for your doorbell!

Making the Touch Point:

You can use 1-2cm square thin metal sheet for the touch point.

Calibration:

This circuit needs some calibration. First connect everything then turn on the power supply & touch the touch point. If circuit does not work change the magnitude of the variable resistor(5Mohm) stop where it starts working.

You can also read my other writing about 555, it will make it easier to understand.

Hope it will help!

### Variable Voltage Using LM317 - Hobby Electronics

Hello everyone! Welcome to my blog. I try to write on different topics mainly focusing Electronic & Computer stuffs. So for now I'm going to show you a very simple circuit that will allow you to make a variable voltage source all by yourself! If you are doing a major in Electrical Engineering you may have seen variable power supplies in the laboratory. You can make one for you!

So here is the diagram!

The LM317 is an adjustable three-terminal positive-voltage regulator capable of supplying more than 1.5 A over an output-voltage range of 1.25 V to 37 V.

How it looks! This is the LM317T. It has hole for connecting Heat Sink as it can produce a lot of heat in high current operation. This IC has very nice features like Large range of voltage, Nice amount of Output Current, Internal Short Circuit Current Limiting mechanism, Good value for Dropout voltage etc. If you are planning on using a load that will draw large current make sure to use a good Heat Sink & Thermal Paste with this.To learn more about Ripple, click here!

For Rectified DC circuit you can take a look at this.
For LM317 Datasheet, you can click this.
So, that was all for now. Any question, you can ask! I will try to answer.
Good luck with this project.

## Monday, June 24, 2013

### Auto Light Up Circuit

Let's make circuit to light up a LED when the surrounding is dark.

This might not be a very practical one but it can help us learn two important concepts.
1. Using Transistor as Switch.
2. How we can use LDR.

LDR is such a device that's Resistance is inversely proportional to the amount of light falling on it. So, More light less the resistance, Less light more the resistance. In dark environment Resistance is about 5K-80K and in Light drops to around 1K.

Diagram:

Mechanism:

Here we are using a voltage dividing circuit consists of a variable resistor and LDR. Let's think about two different states.

State 1(Bright Room): Room or experimental environment has enough light. So the resistance of LDR will be very low. We have to set the variable resistor's resistance in such a manner that it stays at much higher level than the LDR(While exposed to high intensity of light). Now what will happen is what we know from voltage dividing rule. The base of the transistor can now be treated as grounded or directly connected to 0V as current through the Variable resistor will go to ground via LDR. Thus the transistor is not going to turn on. As a result no current will flow through the transistor(Collector to Emitter) as well as the LED, so it won't light up.

State 2(Dark Room): Suppose the light of the room or experimental environment is off now. So this time the resistance of the LDR will be higher and it will go much more higher than the resistance of the variable resistor. So current through the Variable resistor will now go to ground via both the LDR and the transistor causing the transistor to turn on and the LED will start glowing.

Variable resistor can be used to control the sensitivity of this circuit.

Where It can be used?

You can do a lot of experiment with this. You can use Darlington Pair Transistors for more output current and drive heavier loads. You can also use Relay to drive larger loads like a main line voltage device.

A simple LED flasher can also be built with this. Which I hope to write about in a future post.

Resources:

1. Transistor Datasheet.
2. Visit My full Blog.
3. Darlington Pair.

## Friday, June 21, 2013

### Setting Up Catalyst Control Center In Windows - Windows Help

Welcome everyone. Anyone who has used ATi/AMD graphics card know about catalyst control center(CCC). ATI Catalyst is a utility software driver package for ATI Radeon products for Microsoft Windows operating systems and Linux. It is available in both 32bit & 64bit version. It's the driver that makes the card running. For more about catalyst you can visit AMD's website.

Appearance:

This is how the interface look in advanced view. You can change view from the Preferences button located on the top right. Information Tab is now opened & you can see the driver version & stuffs.
You can get the information about the card that means the hardware from the hardware tab from the lower left corner. You can also visit AMD's webpage from here.

Now let's talk about other tabs. First Pinned. By default AMD Home will be pinned there but you can pin any option there. Like if you want to pin the Software information just click click on the green pin button on top right. That will pin it. You can unpin it by clicking again.

Next Presets tab. Here What you can do is make settings a preset & If you have multiple presets for multiple works just load it as per your need.

After that Hydra Vision*. Hydra vision is the option that will allow you to use different desktop environment. Like the Ubuntu's workspace.

I have enabled Hydra grid & Multi desktop & using 4 desktops. From the task bar I can switch to any other desktop.It is an awesome option for running many more applications in small monitor. You can switch to any other desktop for different type of applications that you have arranged.

Next From the Desktop Management you can create & arrange display, like rotate & other options. You can also view small information about connected display. Like here the one I have connected is an Asus MS 228 running in 60Hz. You can detect display, change color quality,desktop color, resolution, refresh rate from here.

From the Common Display Task you can rotate & detect display. Rotating is really easy. It will graphically show you the directions so you can easily understand.

Next is My Digital Flat Panels. From here you can check the panel properties. Enabling or disabling GPU scaling, color controls etc. It will also provide Under scanning & Over scanning option. Sometimes connecting to a monitor via a HDMI/DVI port results in under scanning by default you just have to get here & push that slider to the right side.

Next thing Video. Here Brightness defines overall intensity, Contrast is the difference between brightest & darkest part of the image, Saturation is the amount of color in the image & Tint defines the Red Green & Blue component of the image. You will find these options in the Basic. In the advanced you will find Color Vibrance which controls the vividness of color, Color Management which controls the saturation, Flesh Tone Correction that removes excess red from flesh tones, Brighter Whites it increases the blue value of video images for brighter shades of white, Dynamic Range will control the range of brightness in any image or video, more wider the range is more details will be provided, Video Gamma controls overall intensity of the colors. So chose wisely. Do some experiments to find out the best settings. You can also try out the video presets.

Next The GAMING! Here you will find only one option that is 3D Application Settings. Here you will find Anti Aliasing Mode - Best way is to set this option to Use application settings. Anti Aliasing sample will be automatically set to Use application settings. Remember AA is a very high end option. Running heavy games with AA on will result in poor frame per second. Though as this option shapes all the pixels properly it makes the game look much better. About AA Filter Edge Detect sharpens the image by the way it looks for edges and not smooth every pixel being used, this is a lot more work for your graphics card. Box is the most common filtering method AMD uses and I believe gives you a smaller hit on frames. Its how they image appears on you pixels and sub pixels on your screen, it can make a jagged image smooth by the way it manipulates sub-pixels. Wide tend and narrow tent give the least favorable effects from what I read, it makes things overly blurry and degrades the image in most cases.Confused? Just leave it on the Box.About the Method If you're playing a bunch of old games), then 4x SSAA will really smooth out those games and make them feel new. if you go to more modern games, MSAA provides excellent balance between quality and performance.
As for the Adaptive MSAA, it is a little more thorough, mainly for transparent objects like chain link fence and the like, but still doesn't touch the quality of SSAA. Is more of a performance hog than MSAA due to the additional sampling.

But yeah, running 4x SSAA is about equivalent to running at 2 times your set resolution. 1920 x 1080 becomes 3840 x 2160.

About Texture: Set Anisotropic to Use application settings. It is also an High end option. You can set filtering quality to high. Frame rate controlling Wait for vertical Refresh is Vsync. It synchronizes  game's/application's frame rate to monitor's Refresh Rate which stops tearing. When I play old games like Call of Duty 4 it crosses the 60fps & starts tearing so I had to turn on this option to avoid this to happen. Turn on OpenGL triple buffering.Tessellation mode use AMD optimized.

Last the AMD OverDrive. This will allow you to Overclock your AMD card but it is not a good thing to overclock though & remember do not overclock if you do not have prior experience. You can also enable manual fan control to set fan speed to your desired value.

That was all. Hope you will be able to set all the stuffs properly! Happy Gaming.

Warning: Overclocking will void your warranty. Don't use any refresh rate higher than your monitor's support.

## Thursday, June 20, 2013

### Ubuntu For Humanity - More

Welcome Again. Now I'm going to write about How to Make a USB drive ready for Ubuntu.

First Step :

Select operating system type. If you are running a 64 bit machine download the 64 bit one. & if you are running a 32 bit machine download the 32 bit one.

Second Step :

Third Step :

2GB is more than enough.
Launch the installer.
Press I Agree to go ahead.
You will find this window.

As you can see though there was two different version of Ubuntu in my drive. Only one of it is visible because I have selected this version.

Press Create.

Fourth Step:

After Finishing You Will see Your drive has an Ubuntu Logo on it.
Now Restart Your system. Boot From USB drive.

For Booting from USB drive you have to select that particular drive from boot menu. I'm using a Gigabyte GA Z68A D3H B3 board on my desktop here I had to press F12 for boot menu.

After booting from USB device you will be able to see this.

Select The first option for running it directly from USB drive(Without Installing).

Good Luck with the new operating system.

### Ubuntu For Humanity - A Free OS

Welcome to my blog. Hope you will enjoy reading. Today I'm going to write about Ubuntu. I have first used this operating system around 5 years ago(that time I also used windows XP 2003 x64).It was fun & newer versions are even more fun. Many of you may already heard about it or used it. Yet for those who doesn't know what it is. Trying out a new operating system is fun & it will be even more fun if you can run it from an USB drive without altering anything of your system.

What is Ubuntu:

Ubuntu is an operating system with Linux kernel(The Linux kernel is the operating system kernel used by the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems.It is a very good example of free and open source software) based on Debian(Debian is an operating system composed of free software mostly carrying the GNU General Public License.The operating system is developed by an internet collaboration of volunteers aligned with The Debian Project. Its focus of different kernels makes it appeal to different titles, such as Debian GNU/Linux and kFreeBSD.Debian names its operating systems with kernel names and the word GNU, since Debian depends on its software development using GNU tools.) and distributed as free and open source software. Ubuntu uses the Unity Desktop(An Interface for the GNOME desktop environment as its default desktop environment). It is named after the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu, which can be translated as "humanity towards others" or "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity".

First of all it is free! Can you imagine? How much do you have to pay for windows operating system? But this operating system is totally free.

It is Fast, it is compatible with most of the hardware, it is beautiful, it is customizable!

You will get a lot of software. For example : Libreoffice(Almost same as Microsoft office) , Firefox, Empathy IM, Transmission (A tiny bit-torrent client) , Movie Player, Games & Lot of other applications. Installing new application is even more easier. From your software center just search for the application & Install! Very Easy & Simple.

Installing Application from Software center is also easy.

A very nice feature of this operating system is the Dash Home.
You can just click on the dash home & look for file, folder, applications, music, videos & many more things.Using video lens will be real fun.

Another very nice feature is the Terminal. I know there is a lot of people who loves a system with touch panel & all. Don't like typing stuffs but still there are people(old school type) who will love this feature. With the help of this terminal you can do a lot of things! For example I have downloaded an image with this!

This OS is really beautiful & customizable. Look at the two screenshots, as you can see even if I change the wallpaper the left portion changes its color.

It has got a real nice interface , I really love this. It has got a HUD. Nice keyboard shortcuts & more stuffs to explore.

It has nice privacy settings. You can block users from viewing files & folders.
Ubutu's welcome screen is also nice

One more cool thing about this OS is it is almost virus free. Strange? No.Most Virus is also application(talking about windows based virus/Trojan) that has an extension of .exe which does not run in Ubuntu, So virus made for windows won't work on Ubuntu. (So does all the other applications including games & software)

This is the Home Folder. It's like Computer Explorer in your windows operating system.

Here You can see the image file that I have downloaded using the terminal.

You can also browse Windows Network from this OS.

Here You can see the my desktop connected with the network.

One more feature is Ubuntu One. It is a free personal cloud.

An screenshot from Ubuntu One page.

Connecting to a network is also easy in Ubuntu.

Ubuntu Has this nice feature that will allow user to switch workspace, this is good for running many more applications at a same time. It will surely increase manageability.

Last but not the least you can find settings for almost everything.

So that was a brief & scattered(I know its scattered , sorry guys ) information on Ubuntu.

Thank you all for checking. Next I will be uploading how make Boot able pen drive & Boot from pendrive.

Few Positive Sides:

1. Free,
2. Support For Huge Amount of software,
3. Great For Coding,
4. Runs great even on Low End System,
5. Nice Looking.
6. Steam is now supported on Ubuntu,
7. Virus Free.

Few Negative Sides:

1. Sometimes finding drivers becomes a serious pain,
2. No DirectX Support. So, Most games won't run,
3. Lack of available software(comparing to windows).

[For Example I'm using the Ubuntu 12.04 LTS AMD 64 on a AMD APU based laptop.]